Here are the 10 biggest stock markets in the world by the name of the exchange.
New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), United States
The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the largest stock exchange in the world by market capitalization. It is located in New York City and was founded in 1792. The NYSE is operated by the Intercontinental Exchange (ICE), which acquired the exchange in 2013.
The NYSE is a physical trading floor where traders and specialists conduct transactions through an auction system. However, the majority of trading on the NYSE now takes place electronically. The exchange lists stocks from a variety of companies, including many well-known blue-chip companies such as Coca-Cola, IBM, and McDonald’s.
In addition to stocks, the NYSE also lists other securities, such as bonds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and preferred stocks. The exchange also offers various services, including market data, analytics, and listing services.
The NYSE has had a significant impact on the global economy and is considered a symbol of American capitalism. It has survived various crises throughout its history, including the Great Depression, the 9/11 attacks, and the global financial crisis of 2008.
NASDAQ, United States
The NASDAQ Stock Market, commonly referred to as simply NASDAQ, is an American stock exchange located in New York City. It was founded in 1971 by the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD), which later became known as FINRA (Financial Industry Regulatory Authority).
NASDAQ is known for being the world’s first electronic stock market, and it is home to many high-profile technology companies such as Apple, Microsoft, Amazon, and Facebook. The exchange also lists companies from other sectors, including healthcare, biotechnology, and financial services.
NASDAQ operates a fully electronic trading platform, where buyers and sellers trade securities through a computer network. The exchange also offers other services, including market data, index calculation, and listing services.
NASDAQ has a significant impact on the global economy, and its performance is often used as an indicator of the health of the technology sector. The exchange has been involved in several high-profile corporate scandals, including the 2001 Enron accounting scandal and the 2012 Facebook IPO controversy. Despite these setbacks, NASDAQ has continued to grow and expand its reach in the financial industry.
Tokyo Stock Exchange, Japan
The Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE) is the main securities exchange in Japan and is located in Tokyo. It is one of the largest stock exchanges in the world by market capitalization and trading volume.
The TSE was established in 1878 as the Tokyo Kabushiki Torihikijo and was the first stock exchange in Japan. The exchange merged with several other regional exchanges over the years and was renamed the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 1949.
The TSE operates as a self-regulated organization and is overseen by the Japanese Financial Services Agency. It is divided into three sections: the first section, which lists large companies; the second section, which lists mid-sized companies; and the Mothers section, which lists start-up companies.
As of 2021, the TSE had a market capitalization of around $6 trillion, making it one of the largest stock exchanges in the world. The TSE is home to some of Japan’s largest companies, including Toyota, Mitsubishi, and Sony.
Shanghai Stock Exchange, China
The Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) is one of the two stock exchanges in China, alongside the Shenzhen Stock Exchange. It is based in Shanghai, the largest city in China, and is a major hub for the trading of Chinese stocks.
The SSE was established in 1990 and began trading in 1991. It operates under the supervision of the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC) and is responsible for trading a variety of securities, including stocks, bonds, funds, and other financial products.
The SSE is the world’s fourth-largest stock exchange by market capitalization, with a market capitalization of over $5.5 trillion as of 2021. The exchange is home to some of China’s largest and most well-known companies, including PetroChina, China Mobile, and China Life Insurance.
The SSE Composite Index, also known as the Shanghai Composite, is the main stock market index for the SSE. It tracks the performance of all A-shares and B-shares listed on the exchange. The index is heavily weighted toward financial and industrial companies, which make up a significant portion of China’s economy.
In recent years, the SSE has undergone a number of reforms aimed at making it more accessible to foreign investors. In 2014, the exchange launched the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, which allows investors to trade shares listed on both the SSE and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. This was followed by the launch of the Shanghai-London Stock Connect in 2019, which links the SSE with the London Stock Exchange.
Hong Kong Stock Exchange, Hong Kong
The Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKEX) is one of the world’s largest stock exchanges in terms of market capitalization. It is based in Hong Kong, a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China.
The HKEX was founded in 1891, making it one of the oldest stock exchanges in Asia. It is a publicly-traded company, with its shares listed on its own exchange. The exchange operates under the regulatory oversight of the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission.
The HKEX lists a wide range of securities, including stocks, bonds, funds, and derivatives. As of April 2023, the HKEX has over 2,500 listed companies, with a total market capitalization of over HKD 51 trillion (approximately USD 6.5 trillion). The exchange operates through two trading platforms: the Main Board and the Growth Enterprise Market (GEM). The Main Board lists large and established companies, while GEM is designed for smaller and growing companies.
The HKEX is an important gateway for international investors looking to access China’s economy. In 2018, the HKEX launched a new listing regime to attract more companies from emerging and innovative sectors, including technology and biotech companies, to list on its exchange. The HKEX also launched a new trading platform in 2019, known as the HKEX Synapse Platform, which is designed to facilitate international capital flows and provide investors with greater access to the exchange’s products and services.
Euronext, Netherlands, Belgium, France, Portugal
Euronext is a pan-European stock exchange based in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It was formed in 2000 as a merger of the exchanges of Amsterdam, Brussels, and Paris, and later expanded to include the exchanges of Lisbon, Dublin, and Oslo. Euronext is the largest stock exchange in continental Europe by market capitalization and offers trading in a wide range of financial instruments, including equities, derivatives, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and fixed-income securities.
The exchange operates a hybrid trading model that combines electronic trading with open outcry, which allows traders to enter orders directly into the exchange’s electronic system or execute trades through a broker on the trading floor. Euronext also operates several subsidiaries, including Euronext London, which offers trading in international securities, and Euronext Growth and Euronext Access, which are dedicated to supporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and startups.
Euronext is known for its diverse range of listings, with more than 1,500 companies listed on the exchange as of 2021, including many large international corporations such as Air France-KLM, Heineken, and TotalEnergies. The exchange has also been a leader in sustainable finance, launching a range of ESG indices and products aimed at promoting responsible investment and sustainable economic growth.
Shenzhen Stock Exchange, China
The Shenzhen Stock Exchange is one of the two major stock exchanges in China, the other being the Shanghai Stock Exchange. It is located in the city of Shenzhen and was founded on December 1, 1990. The Shenzhen Stock Exchange focuses primarily on small and medium-sized companies, as well as high-tech and growth-oriented enterprises.
The Shenzhen Stock Exchange has two main boards: the SME Board and the ChiNext Board. The SME Board is designed for small and medium-sized enterprises that meet certain financial and corporate governance requirements. The ChiNext Board is a market for growth-oriented, high-tech companies.
The Shenzhen Stock Exchange has over 2,000 listed companies, with a total market capitalization of over $3 trillion as of 2021. The exchange is known for its focus on technology, with many of its listed companies operating in the high-tech and manufacturing sectors. The exchange also features a number of exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and index products, such as the SZSE Component Index and the ChiNext Price Index.
London Stock Exchange, United Kingdom
The London Stock Exchange (LSE) is one of the oldest and largest stock exchanges in the world. It was established in 1801 and is located in London, United Kingdom. The LSE is owned and operated by London Stock Exchange Group (LSEG), a leading global financial markets infrastructure provider.
The LSE has a diverse range of products, including equities, bonds, ETFs, derivatives, and structured products. It is home to some of the largest and most well-known companies in the world, such as BP, HSBC, and Unilever. The exchange is also known for its Alternative Investment Market (AIM), which is designed for smaller, growing companies.
Trading on the LSE is conducted through a combination of electronic and open outcry methods, and the exchange operates from 8:00 am to 4:30 pm UK time. The LSE also has a strong regulatory framework, with the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) overseeing market conduct and the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) regulating financial stability.
In addition to its primary exchange in London, the LSE operates a number of other exchanges and trading platforms around the world, including Borsa Italiana in Italy and Turquoise, a pan-European equities multilateral trading facility. The LSE also owns several data and index providers, such as FTSE Russell and Refinitiv.
Toronto Stock Exchange, Canada
The Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) is the largest stock exchange in Canada and one of the largest in the world. It was founded in 1852 as the Toronto Stock Exchange Association, and later merged with the Standard Stock and Mining Exchange in 1934 to become the Toronto Stock Exchange.
The TSX lists a variety of securities, including common and preferred shares, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), trust units, and investment funds. As of April 2023, the TSX has over 1,500 listed companies, with a total market capitalization of over $3 trillion CAD.
The TSX is owned and operated by TMX Group, a Canadian financial services company that operates a variety of financial markets, including the TSX Venture Exchange, the Montreal Exchange, and NGX, a natural gas exchange. TMX Group also offers a variety of data and analytics services to help investors make informed decisions.
The TSX is known for its strong presence in the mining and energy sectors, with many of the world’s largest mining and energy companies listed on the exchange. However, the TSX also has a diverse range of other industries represented, including technology, healthcare, and finance.
The TSX has a reputation for being well-regulated and transparent, with strict listing requirements and regulations to ensure fair trading and protect investors. The exchange is also known for its market-making program, which helps ensure liquidity for listed securities.
Deutsche Börse, Germany
Deutsche Börse is a German stock exchange based in Frankfurt, Germany. It was founded in 1993 as a merger between the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and the Deutsche Terminbörse, which was a derivatives exchange. Today, Deutsche Börse is one of the largest exchange organizations in the world, operating multiple exchanges and trading platforms across Europe.
Deutsche Börse operates the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, which is the largest stock exchange in Germany and one of the largest in Europe. It also operates the Xetra electronic trading platform, which is used for trading stocks, bonds, and other securities. In addition, Deutsche Börse operates the European Energy Exchange, which is the leading energy exchange in Europe, and the Eurex Exchange, which is a derivatives exchange.
Deutsche Börse also offers a variety of market data and technology services to its customers, including real-time and historical market data, trading systems, and post-trade services. It is considered to be a leader in financial technology innovation and has developed several new platforms and technologies for trading and clearing securities.
Overall, Deutsche Börse is a major player in the global financial markets and plays a significant role in the European financial system.