A Program-Related Investment (PRI) is a type of impact investment made by foundations and other tax-exempt organizations. PRIs are unique in that they are made primarily for the purpose of furthering the organization’s charitable mission rather than generating financial returns, although they are expected to be repaid with a modest financial return.
Here are some key characteristics of Program-Related Investments:
- Charitable Purpose: PRIs are designed to support and advance the charitable objectives and mission of the investing foundation or organization. This distinguishes them from traditional investments, which are primarily made to generate profit.
- Below-Market Returns: While PRIs are expected to generate some financial return, those returns are typically below what the organization could earn through traditional investments. The focus is on achieving social or environmental impact rather than maximizing financial gains.
- Mission Alignment: PRIs are typically aligned with the core mission of the foundation or organization. They are used to support activities and projects that further the organization’s charitable goals, such as poverty alleviation, education, healthcare, or environmental conservation.
- Repayment: PRIs are structured as loans, equity investments, guarantees, or other financial instruments. The recipient of the PRI is expected to repay the funds, often with interest or some form of financial return. This distinguishes PRIs from outright grants.
- Legal Framework: PRIs are subject to specific legal requirements in the United States under the IRS (Internal Revenue Service) regulations for private foundations. These regulations dictate that PRIs must have a primary purpose of achieving charitable goals and that the financial return should be secondary.
- Impact Measurement: Foundations and organizations making PRIs often monitor and evaluate the social or environmental impact of their investments to ensure they are effectively furthering their charitable mission.
Overall, Program-Related Investments provide a way for foundations and other philanthropic entities to leverage their resources for social and environmental good while still maintaining a degree of financial sustainability. They offer a flexible tool for impact-focused organizations to support initiatives that align with their mission while expecting a reasonable financial return, albeit lower than market rates.
Who makes program related investments?
Program-Related Investments (PRIs) are typically made by tax-exempt organizations, most commonly foundations. Foundations are philanthropic entities established by individuals, families, or corporations with the primary goal of supporting charitable causes. When foundations make PRIs, they are using a portion of their endowment or assets to provide financial support to initiatives or organizations that align with their charitable mission. Here are some key types of organizations that commonly make PRIs:
- Private Foundations: Private foundations, including family foundations and independent foundations, are among the most common entities to make PRIs. These foundations use their financial resources to support charitable activities and may choose to do so through PRIs as part of their overall grantmaking strategy.
- Community Foundations: Community foundations are organizations that pool resources from donors to support charitable activities within a specific geographic area. Like private foundations, community foundations may use PRIs to advance their mission and address local community needs.
- Corporate Foundations: Many large corporations have established their own charitable foundations. These foundations may use PRIs as a tool to support initiatives that align with the corporation’s values and areas of focus.
- Public Foundations: Some foundations receive funding from public sources, such as government grants or public donations. These foundations may also make PRIs as part of their philanthropic efforts.
- Donor-Advised Funds: Donor-advised funds (DAFs) are charitable giving vehicles that allow donors to make recommendations for how the funds are distributed to nonprofit organizations. Some DAF sponsors may choose to make PRIs based on the recommendations of donors, especially if the donors are interested in impact investing.
- Impact Investing Funds: In addition to traditional foundations, impact investing funds, impact-focused venture capital firms, and social investment organizations may also make PRIs as part of their mission to generate both social and financial returns.
It’s important to note that while these organizations can make PRIs, they do so within the legal and regulatory framework established by the country’s tax authorities. In the United States, for example, PRIs made by private foundations are subject to specific IRS regulations to ensure that they serve charitable purposes and provide a reasonable rate of return. Each organization making PRIs will have its own policies, criteria, and guidelines for evaluating and executing these investments in line with their mission and values.